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Citation Styles Guide: Works cited - examples

This guide is intended to help students with the different citation styles used at the College.

Works Cited: Examples

Below, you will find examples of Works Cited entries from some of the most used types of sources at Marianopolis College. For more examples of Works Cited entries, consult Appendix 2 of the MLA Handbook, 9th edition.

Remember: Every Works Cited entry in MLA 9th edition follows the same template. As a result, you can construct any citation you need by using the template. For details, see the Works Cited - Page formatting and creating an entry page on this guide.

When a section of the Works Cited format is highlighted in red with a strikethrough, this means that that particular section of the format is not normally necessary for that particular type of source. There may be cases, however, when you have information for one of those sections, and it is possible to include that information as needed.

Some sources require supplemental information in the entry. In those cases, we have included which supplemental information is needed in the examples.

 

Works Cited: Books

A book

1) One author

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Book). Title of Container, Contributor(s), Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location.

Example:

Levithan, David. Boy Meets Boy. Ember, 2003.

 

2) Two authors

Format:

Author, and Author. Title of Source (Book). Title of Container, Contributor(s), Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location.

Example:

Gaiman, Neil, and Terry Pratchett. Good Omens. Ace Books, 1996.

 

3) Three or more authors

Format:

First Author, et al. Title of Source (Book). Title of Container, Other Contributor(s), Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location.

Example:

Pasto, Daniel J., et al. Experiments and Techniques in Organic Chemistry. Prentice Hall, 1992.

 

A specific edition of a book

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Book). Title of Container, Contributor, Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location.

Example:

Goodwin, Albert. The French Revolution. 3rd ed., Hutchinson, 1965.

 

An edited book

1) If the editors have compiled the book from many works by many different authors.

Format:

Editor, editor. Title of Source (Book). Title of Container, Contributor, Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location.

Example:

Goodlad, Lauren and Michael Bibby, editors. Goth: Undead Subculture. Duke UP, 2007.

2) If the book is primarily written by an author, but has significant contributions (e.g. introductions, footnotes, etc.) by an editor.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Book). Title of Container, Edited by Contributor, Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location.

Example:

Shakespeare, William. King Lear: An Authoritative Text, Sources, Criticism, Adaptations, and Responses. Edited by Grace Ioppolo, W.W. Norton, 2008.

 

A translated book

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Book). Title of Container, Translated by Contributor, Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location.

Example:

Euripides. Medea. Translated by Nicholas Rudall, Ivan R. Dee, 2000.

 

A comic book or graphic narrative

1) Where the author and the illustrator are the same person:

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Book). Title of Container, Contributor, Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location.

Example:

Vigneault, François. Titan. Oni Press, 2020.

2) Where the author and the illustrator are different people.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Book). Title of Container, Illustrated by Contributor, Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location.

Example:

Hirsh, Ananth. Our Cats Are More Famous Than Us: A Johnny Wander Collection. Illustrated by Yuko Ota, Oni Press, 2017.

 

An eBook

1) Individually purchased copy

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Book). Title of Container, Contributor, -E-book version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location

Example:

Onyebuchi, Tochi. Riot Baby. E-book ed., Tom Doherty Associates, 2019. 

 

2) From a website or database

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Book). Title of Container 1, Contributor, Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location. Title of Container 2 (Website or Database Title), Other Contributor, Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location (DOI / Stable link / URL).

Example:

Eigen, Joel Peter. Unconscious Crime: Mental Absence and Criminal Responsibility in Victorian London. Johns Hopkins UP, 2003. Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/marianopolis-ebooks/reader.action?ppg=1&docID=3318233&tm=1479405171085.

 

A chapter in an edited book or work (short story, poem, etc.) in an anthology

Format:

Chapter Author. "Title of Source (Chapter)." Title of Container (Book), edited by Contributor(s), Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location (pages).

Example:

Verjus, Anne. "Gender, Sexuality, and Political Culture." A Companion to the French Revolution, edited by Peter McPhee, Wiley, 2012, pp. 196-211.

 

A individually-edited or authored volume in a multivolume series

If a book is an individually-edited or authored volume but is part of a named multivolume series, MLA suggests adding the book series volume number and title as supplemental information after the location.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Book). Title of Container 1, Other Contributor, Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location. Title of Container 2 (Series), Other Contributor, Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location. Series volume Number of Series Title.

Example:

Smith, Richard. Green Capitalism: The God that failed. College Publications on behalf of the World Economics Association, 2016. Vol. 5 of The World Economics Association Book Series.

Works Cited: Religious texts

Scriptural texts (includes Hebrew or Christian Bible, Qur'an, Upanishads, Pseudepigrapha, etc.)

Note: Texts such as the Bible, Qur'an, Talmud, or Torah, are not considered to have "authors" in the traditional sense. Therefore, the author is left out of the Works Cited entry. Editors and translators are included, if available, but are listed in the contributors space after the title. If a particular work of scripture is being made available in the text in a standardized translations (e.g. King James Version, New Standard Revised Version), do not include a translator, as these are group works and are not attributable to an individual or individuals.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Specific Title of Version). Title of Container, Edited by Contributor (if applicable), translated by Contributor (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location.

Example:

The New Oxford Annotated Bible. Edited by Michael D. Coogan, 4th ed., Oxford UP, 2010.

 

The Anchor Bible Commentary Series

The Anchor Bible Commentary Series are individually-edited and titled volumes that are part of a multivolume series. As a result, MLA suggests adding supplemental information of the book series volume number and title at the end of the citation.

Format:

Editor, editor. Title of Source (Title of Volume). Title of Container, Other Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location. Series volume Number of Title of Series.

Example:

Weinfeld, Moshe, editor. Deuteronomy 1-11. Doubleday, 1991. Vol. 5 of The Anchor Bible Commentary Series.

 

The Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture

The Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture are individually-edited and titled volumes that are part of a multivolume series. As a result, MLA suggests adding supplemental information of the book series volume number and title at the end of the citation.

Format:

Editor, editor. Title of Source (Title of Volume). Title of Container, Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location. Series volume Number of Series.

Example:

Wenthe, Dean O., editor. Jeremiah, Lamentations. InterVarsity Press, 2009. Old Testament XII of The Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture.

Works Cited: Journal articles

A journal article (electronic, from an online database)

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Article)." Title of Container 1 (Journal Name), Contributor, Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date (Year or Season Year), Location (page range). Title of Container 2 (Title of Database), Other Contributor, Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location (DOI / Permalink / URL).

Example 1 - With a DOI:

Note: When adding a DOI, if the DOI doesn't begin with "http:" or "https:", add "https://doi.org/" to the beginning.

Ryan, Susan M. "Stowe, Byron, and the Art of Scandal." American Literature, vol. 83, no. 1, 2011, pp. 59-91. Academic Search Premier, https://doi.org/10.1215/00029831-2010-063.

Example 2 - With a permalink or URL:

Note: The formatting for both a permalink (a stable link given to you by the database) and a URL (the link from the browser bar) is identical. Whenever possible, the permalink or stable URL is preferred to the browser URL.

Baldwin, Gayle R. "Night of the Living Wonks." Foreign Policy, no. 180, 2010, pp. 34-38. Social Sciences Full Text (H. W. Wilson), http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url&db=ssf&AN=504447225&site=ehost-live.

 

A journal article (print)

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Article)." Title of Container (Journal Name), Contributor, Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location (pages).

Example:

Shevtsova, Lilia. "The Next Russian Revolution." Current History, vol. 111, no. 747, 2012, pp. 251-257.

Works Cited: News articles

Print newspaper article

1) Single-page or multiple-page articles with consecutive numbering.

Note: For a single-page article, enter "p." followed by the page number. For an article with multiple consecutive pages, enter "pp." followed by the first page, a dash, and the final page of the article.

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Title of Articles)." Title of Container (Title of News Source), Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (Day Month Year), Location (page numbers).

Example:

McLintock, Barb. "B.C. Natives Build Future: Indigenous Games May Come to Victoria in Next Two Years." The Province, 13 Aug. 1995, p. A69.

 

2) A non-consecutively paginated article.

Note: For non-consecutively paginated articles, enter "pp." followed by the first page of the article, followed by a "+".

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Title of Articles)." Title of Container (Title of News Source), Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (Day Month Year), Location (page numbers).

Example:

Mercer, Greg. "President of N.S. art school battled with board before she was fired." The Chronicle-Herald, 7 June 2021, pp. A1+.

 

Online news article

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Title of Articles)." Title of Container (Title of News Source), Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (Day Month Year), Location (URL).

Example:

Khula, Shari. "'Dangerous Poison': North Korea Cracks Down on Western Films, Slang and Skinny Jeans." The National Post, 7 June 2021, https://nationalpost.com/news/world/dangerous-poison-north-korea-cracks-down-on-western-films-slang-and-skinny-jeans.

 

Opinion or editorial

Add a supplemental label of "Op-ed." to the end of the citation.
If an editorial is published as the work of a newspapers editorial board, enter "Editorial Board" in place of an individual author.

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Title of Articles)." Title of Container (Title of News Source), Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (Day Month Year), Location (Page URL). Op-ed.

Example:

Editorial Board. "'Editorial: Fitzgibbon, Legault and the Law." The Montreal Gazette, 4 June 2021, https://montrealgazette.com/opinion/editorials/editorial-fitzgibbon-legault-and-the-law. Op-ed.

Works Cited: Reference articles

Reference articles include articles from encyclopedias, dictionaries, handbooks, or any other type of reference source (e.g. any source of short, informative articles that are intended to give introductions and overviews of topics). Usually, you will only cite an article from a reference work in a Works Cited, and not the reference work as a whole.

 

A print reference article (Signed author)

A "signed author" means that the individual entry in the reference work has a specific author attributed to it.

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Article)." Title of Container (Reference Work), edited by Contributor, Version (if not the first edition), Number (if more than one volume), Publisher, Publication date, Location (pages).

 Example:

Russel, Jeffrey B. "Church, Early." Dictionary of the Middle Ages, edited by Joseph R. Strayer, vol. 3, Charles Scribner's Sons,1983, pp. 337-343.

 

A print reference article (Unsigned author)

An "unsigned author" means that no one author for the reference work is directly attributed to the specific article.

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Article)." Title of Container (Reference Work), edited by Contributor, Version (if not the first edition), Number (if more than one volume), Publisher, Publication date, Location (pages).

Example:

"Neo-Classicism." The Oxford Companion to English Literature, edited by Margaret Drabble, 6th ed., Oxford UP, 2000, p. 715.

 

An online reference article (Signed author)

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Article)." Title of Container 1 (Reference Work), edited by Other Contributor, Version (if not the first), Number (if more than one volume), Publisher, Publication date, Location (pages, if available). Title of Container 2 (Reference Database, if applicable), Other Contributor(s), Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location (stable URL).

Example:

Baffes, John. "Coffee Industry." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, edited by William A. Darity, Jr., vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2008, pp. 594-596. Gale eBooks, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3045300372/GVRL?u=west99811&sid=bookmark-GVRL&xid=932fcad9.

 

An online reference article (Unsigned author)

An "unsigned author" means that no one author for the reference work is directly attributed to the specific article.

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Article)." Title of Container 1 (Reference Work), edited by Other Contributor, Version (if not the first), Number (if more than one volume), Publisher, Publication date, Location (pages, if available). Title of Container 2 (Reference Database, if applicable), Other Contributor(s), Version, Number (volume, issue), Publisher, Publication date, Location (stable URL).

Example:

"Creativity." Encyclopedia of Management, 8th ed., vol. 1,  Gale, 2019, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX7617900075/GVRL?u=west99811&sid=bookmark-GVRL&xid=0cd1840f.

 

A dictionary entry (print)

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Article)." Title of Container (Reference Work), edited by Contributor (if specific editors are names), Version (if not the first edition), Number (if more than one volume), Publisher, Publication date, Location (page). 

Example:

"Heavy." Canadian Oxford Dictionary, edited by Katherine Barber, 2nd ed. Oxford UP, 2004, p. 700.

 

A dictionary entry (online - self-contained website)

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Article)." Title of Container (Dictionary), edited by Other Contributor (if a specific editor is named), Version (if not the first), Number (if more than one volume), Publisher, Publication date, Location (DOI / Permalink / URL).

Example:

"Heavy, adv." OED Online, Oxford UP, 2021, www.oed.com/view/Entry/85249.

 

A dictionary entry (online - part of a database)

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Article)." Title of Container 1 (Dictionary), edited by Other Contributor (if a specific editor is named), Version (if not the first), Number (if more than one volume), Publisher, Publication date. Title of Container 2 (Database), Location (DOI / Permalink / URL).

Example:

"Heavy." Canadian Oxford Dictionary, edited by Katherine Barber, 2nd ed. Oxford UP, 2005. Oxford Reference, https://www-oxfordreference-com.ezproxy.marianopolis.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780195418163.001.0001/m_en_ca0031423.

Works Cited: Websites

An entire website

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Name of website). Title of Container, Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher (if not the same as website), Publication date, Location (stable URL).

Example:

Marianopolis College. 2016, http://www.marianopolis.edu/.

 

A page from a website

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Name of page)." Title of Container (Website Title), Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher (if not the same as website), Publication date, Location (stable URL).

Example:

Hillmer, Norman. "The Death of the Meech Lake Accord." The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Canada, 4 Mar. 2015, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/the-death-of-the-meech-lake-accord-feature/.

 

A blog entry

If you are citing a blog entry that is self-contained on its own website, just use the standard page from a website formatting, as laid out above. If the blog is a part of a larger website (e.g. The Paris Review's "The Daily"), cite the entry as a page from the overall website, but include the title of the blog as a supplemental series title at the end of the citation. Do not italicize the title or place in quotation marks.

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Name of page)." Title of Container (Website Title), Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher (if not the same as website), Publication date, Location (stable URL). Blog Series Title.

Example:

Abdurraqib, Hanif. "On Sneakers." The Paris Review, 7 June 2021, https://www.theparisreview.org/blog/2021/06/07/on-sneakers/. The Daily.

 

A video clip (YouTube)

Note: When citing videos from YouTube or a similar site, do not list YouTube as the publisher of the website, as they were not involved in creating the content. However, if citing a video from a website where the owners of the site created the video, such as a video clip on a news site, include the publisher.

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Clip Title)." Title of Container (Website Title), uploaded by Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher (only if they created the content), Publication date, Location (stable URL).

Example:

"Computation History – Ada Lovelace: Enchantress of Numbers." YouTube, uploaded by BinarycoreMedia, 10 Dec. 2012, https://youtu.be/ictUosiEOyw.

 

Social Media Post (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, etc. . .)

When citing social media posts, only cite content that is original to the platform (e.g. an update, video, image, etc. . .). Do not cite a link shared on social media. Instead, cite the linked content from its original source. 

Note: Because social media posts lack formal titles, you create a title using the text of the post. If the post is very short, use the full text. If it is longer, include only the first clause or sentence of the post, follow by an ellipsis (. . . ), to show that you have truncated the source.

Format:

Author  [Social Media Handle]. "Title of Source (Text of post - truncated if necessary)." Title of Container (Social Media Site), Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date(Day Month Year, Timestamp, if available), Location (Permalink / URL).

Example 1 - Twitter:

Marianopolis College Library [@marianopolib]. "It's sunny, it's cold, and we're open! . . . " Twitter, 8 Mar 2021, 8:38 a.m., https://twitter.com/marianopolib/status/1368919119249149953?s=20.

Example 2 - Facebook:

Marianopolis College Library [@marianopolib]. "Tuesday April 2 at 11:00am: We're launching a craft-ivity at the Library and we need your participation to make it work! Come create with us." Facebook, 1 Apr. 2019, 6:50 p.m., https://www.facebook.com/marianopolib/posts/2199581946789453.

Example 3 - Instagram (post):

Marianopolis College Library [@marianopolis_college_library]. "Need a break from work? The Library has several Sudoku puzzles up on the Main Floor!" Instagram, 26 Mar. 2019, 6:50 p.m., https://www.instagram.com/p/BveOaI-h84o/.

Example 4 - TikTok:

Hank Green [@hankgreen1]. "Do your homework" Tiktok, 5 Sep. 2021, https://www.tiktok.com/foryou?is_from_webapp=v1&q=hank green&t=1631801646303.

 

A forum comment (e.g. Omnivox Class Forum or Teams)

Format:

Comment author. "Title of Forum Thread." Title of Forum, Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Timestamp or comment number. Forum Hosting Site, Location (Permalink / URL).

Example (Omnivox):

Note: Because it is not possible to directly link to a post in Omnivox, link to the more general Marianopolis Omnivox site. Also, because there are static comment numbers assigned to each thread in the Omnivox class forums, used the comment number instead of a timestamp.

Huffels, Natalie. "Sonnet 130." 603-101-MQ sect. 00012 - Introduction to College English, 17 Sep. 2020, comment 17. Omnivox, https://marianopolis.omnivox.ca.

Example (Teams):

Note: Because it is not possible to link to a Teams group or access the group if you are not a member of the Team, leave the link out of the citation. 

Huffels, Natalie. "Sonnet 130." 603-101-MQ sect. 00012 - Introduction to College English, 17 Sep. 2020, 2:32 p.m. Teams.

Works Cited: Films

Unless your essay is specifically investigating the work of a particular director, etc., MLA instructs us to start an entry about a films with the title, followed by the contributors. This is because, in the process of making a film, no one person can be said to be the "primary" author or creator.

Unless the specific performers of a film are being discussed in your work, MLA instructs that you do not include them in the citation. If you do need to reference particular performers and their performances in the film, you can include performers as Contributors to the film, after the Director.

 

A feature film or documentary - Viewed in a theatre, or on self-contained home media (e.g. DVD, Blu-ray)

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Film). Title of Container, Directed by Contributor, Version (if other than the original), Number, Publisher (Studio/Production Company/Distributor), Publication date, Location.

Example:

Breathless. Directed by Jean-Luc Godard, Criterion, 2007.

 

A feature film or documentary (if your essay is about the director instead of the film)

Format:

Director, director. Title of Source (Film). Title of Container, Contributor, Version (if other than the original), Number, Publisher (Studio/Production Company/Distributor), Publication date, Location.

Example:

Godard, Jean-Luc, director. Breathless. Criterion, 2007.

 

A feature film or documentary (if the original publication date is given as a supplementary element)

Sometimes, the original release date of a film may be useful to your reader if you are referencing a later version, such as an Extended Edition, Special Edition, or Director's Cut. In this case, the original release date can be included after the Title of Source as a supplemental element.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Film). Original release date. Title of Container, Directed by Contributor, Version (if other than the original), Number, Publisher (Studio/Production Company/Distributor), Publication date, Location.

Example:

Star Wars: Episode IV - A New Hope. 1977. Directed by George Lucas, special ed., 20th Century Fox, 1997.

 

A feature film or documentary (streamed from an online database)

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Film). Title of Container 1, Directed by Contributor,  Version (if other than the original), Number, Publisher (Studio/Production Company/Distributor), Publication date, Location. Title of Container 2 (Database), Other Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location (stable URL).

Example:

Noah. Directed by Darren Aronofsky, Paramount Pictures, 2014. Criterion on Demand, http://media2.criterionpic.com/htbin/wwform/006?T=P21687.

 

A feature film or documentary (viewed on an app)

Many commercial streaming services (e.g. Netflix, Disney+, Crave TV, Amazon Prime Video, etc. . .) allow you to view their content through an app on your device. In these cases, a link to the particular film will not be available to you. Instead, list the title of the app as your second container, followed by the label "app."

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Film). Title of Container 1, Directed by Contributor,  Version (if other than the original), Number, Publisher (Studio/Production Company/Distributor), Publication date, Location. Title of Container 2 (Database) app, Other Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location.

Example:

47 Ronin. Directed by Carl Rinsch, Universal Pictures, 2013. Netflix app.

Works Cited: Television series, seasons, and episodes

Unless your essay is specifically investigating the work of a particular director, creator, etc., MLA instructs us to start an entry about a television episode or series with the title, followed by the contributors. This is because, in the process of making a television series, no one person can be said to be the "primary" author or creator.

Unless the specific performers of a film are being discussed in your work, MLA instructs that you do not include them in the citation. If you do need to reference particular performers and their performances in the television episode or series, you can include performers as Contributors to the film, after the Director.

 

An entire television series

It is more common to cite individual episodes of a television series that you have discussed in your work. However, if you are discussing the series as a whole and not individual episodes, you can cite the entire series.

Many television series span multiple seasons over multiple years, so, when citing an entire series, list both the first and last years as the publication date, separated by a hyphen (e.g. 1997-2003).

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Series Title). Title of Container, Created by Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher (Distributor), Publication date, Location.

Example:

Battlestar Galactica. Created by Ronald D. Moore, Universal, 2004-2009.

 

An entire television series (streamed from an online database)

While most of the formatting for a television series remains the same when you stream if from an online database versus watching it through other methods, it is recommended that you include the name of the database as a second container, and a link to the series in the database, if possible.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Series Title). Title of Container 1, Created by Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher (Distributor), Publication date, LocationTitle of Container 2 (Database), Location (stable URL).

Example:

Star Trek. Created by Gene Roddenberry, ViacomCBS, 1966-1969. Netflix, https://www.netflix.com/search?q=star%20trek&jbv=70136140.

 

An entire television series (viewed on an app)

Many commercial streaming services (e.g. Netflix, Disney+, Crave TV, Amazon Prime, etc. . .) allow you to view their content through an app on your device. In these cases, a link to a particular series will not be available to you. Instead, list the title of the app as your second container, followed by the label "app."

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Series Title). Title of Container 1, Created by Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher (Distributor), Publication date, LocationTitle of Container 2 (Database) app.

Example:

Star Trek. Created by Gene Roddenberry, ViacomCBS, 1966-1969. Netflix app.

 

A season of a television series

It is more common to cite a single episode than a season, but, if necessary, it is possible to cite a season as a whole.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Series Title). Title of Container, Created by Contributor, Version, Number (season), Publisher (Distributor), Publication date, Location.

Example:

Avatar: The Last Airbender. Created by Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko, season 3, Nickelodeon, 2007-2008.

 

A season of a television series viewed on physical media (e.g. DVD, Blu-ray)

This would be used to cite a DVD or Blu-ray box set of a single season of a television series. Note that the season number does not need to be included in the Number section if the title of the set names the season. Include a label as supplemental information at the end of the citation in order to alert the reader of the format on which you viewed the season of the series.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Title of DVD Set). Title of Container, Created by Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher (Distributor), Publication date, Location. Media Label.

Example:

Avatar: The Last Airbender: The Complete Book 3 Collection. Created by Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko, Nickelodeon, 2008. DVD.

 

A season of a television series (streamed from an online database)

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Series Title). Title of Container 1, Created by Contributor, Version, Number (season), Publisher (Distributor), Publication date, Location. Title of Container 2 (Database), Location (Stable URL).

Example:

Avatar: The Last Airbender. Created by Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko, season 3, Nickelodeon, 2007-2008. Netflix, https://www.netflix.com/search?q=avatar&jbv=70142405.

 

A season of a television series (viewed on an app)

Many commercial streaming service (e.g. Netflix, Disney+, Crave TV, Amazon Prime Video, etc. . .) allow you to view their content through an app on your device. In these cases, a link to a particular series will not be available to you. Instead, list the title of the app as your second container, followed by the label "app."

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Series Title). Title of Container 1, Created by Contributor, Version, Number (season), Publisher (Distributor), Publication date, Location. Title of Container 2 (Database) app.

Example:

Avatar: The Last Airbender. Created by Michael Dante DiMartino and Bryan Konietzko, season 3, Nickelodeon, 2007-2008. Netflix app.

 

An episode from a television series

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Episode)." Title of Container (Series Title), created by Contributor, Version, Number (Season, Episode), Publisher (Distributor), Publication date, Location.

Example 1:

"Call of the Yeti." The Mighty Boosh, created by Julian Barratt and Noel Fielding, performances by Julian Barratt, Noel Fielding, and Michael Fielding, series 2, episode 1, BBC, 25 Jul. 2005.

Example 2 - With an episode Director:

Sometimes, it is useful to include the director for an individual episode of a television series. In this case, include the name as supplementary information after the Title of Source. Precede the name with "Directed by."

"Call of the Yeti." Directed by Paul King. The Mighty Boosh, created by Julian Barratt and Noel Fielding, series 2, episode 1, BBC, 25 Jul. 2005.

 

An episode from a television series viewed on physical media (e.g. DVD, Blu-ray)

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Episode)." Title of Container (Series Title), created by Contributor, Version, Number (Episode), Publisher (Distributor), Publication date, Location (Disc number). Media label.

Example:

"Call of the Yeti." The Mighty Boosh 2, created by Julian Barratt, and Noel Fielding, episode 1, BBC, 2009, disc 1. DVD.

 

An episode from a television series (streamed from an online database)

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Episode)." Title of Container 1 (Series Title), created by Contributor, Version, Number (Season, Episode), Publisher (Distributor), Publication date, LocationTitle of Container 2 (Database), Location (stable URL).

Example:

"The Launch." Space Force, created by Steve Carell and Greg Daniels, season 1, episode 1, Three Arts Entertainment, 2020. Netflix, https://www.netflix.com/watch/81073545.

 

An episode from a television series (viewed on an app)

Many commercial streaming services (e.g. Netflix, Disney+, Crave TV, Amazon Prime Video, etc. . .) allow you to view their content through an app on your device. In these cases, a link to the particular film will not be available to you. Instead, list the title of the app as your second container, followed by the label "app."

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Episode)." Title of Container (Series Title), created by Contributor, Version, Number (Season, Episode), Publisher (Distributor), Publication date, LocationTitle of Container 2 (Database), Location (stable URL).

Example:

"The Launch." Space Force, created by Steve Carell and Greg Daniels, season 1, episode 1, Three Arts Entertainment, 2020. Netflix app.

Works Cited: Audio recordings

Use the following format for any type of sound recording, regardless of the medium of that recording (e.g. Vinyl, Sound File, CD, Cassette, etc. . .).

 

A musical recording (In a physical medium - CD, vinyl, cassette, etc. . . )

Note: While the example below uses a musical recording from an album, the same rules apply for a recording that was released on its own. In the case of a recording that does not belong to an album, simply omit the Title of Container from your citation, or, if the audio recording comes from a website, use the website's name as the container for that recording.

Format:

Author(s). "Title of Source (Title of Audio Recording)." Title of Container, Contributor(s), Version, Number, Publisher (Record Label), Publication date, Location.

Example 1:

Martin, Béatrice. "Comme des Enfants." Coeur de Pirate, Grosse Boîte, 2008.

Example 2 - With the specific medium included

Sometimes, it is important to include a specific medium of publication (e.g. if you are discussing how the recording sounds on vinyl). In these cases, include the medium as a supplemental element at the end of the citation.

Martin, Béatrice. "Comme des Enfants." Coeur de Pirate, Grosse Boîte, 2008. Vinyl LP.

 

A musical recording (obtained online from a website or database)

Note: This includes songs streamed off of websites such as Spotify, or purchased and downloaded through online stores such as iTunes or Google Play.

Format:

Author(s). "Title of Source (Title of audio recording)." Title of Container 1 (Album Title), Contributor(s), Version, Number, Publisher (Record Label), Publication date, Location. Title of Container 2 (Title of Website or Service), Location (URL).

Example 1 (Website):

Beyoncé. "Formation." Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016. Beyoncé, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.

Example 2 (online store):

Classified. "Inner Ninja." Classified, Halflife Records, 2014. iTunes, itunes.apple.com/us/album/classified/id920147846.

 

A musical recording (from an app)

Many commercially available music streaming services will allow you to listen to music through an app on your device (e.g. Spotify, Apple Music, YouTube Music, etc. . . ). In these cases, there will not be a URL or permalink for the song. Instead, you include the name of the app as the Title of Container 2 and follow it with the label "app."

Format:

Author(s). "Title of Source (Title of audio recording)." Title of Container 1 (Album Title), Contributor(s), Version, Number, Publisher (Record Label), Publication date, Location. Title of Container 2 (Title of Website or Service) app.

Example (Website):

Beyoncé. "Formation." Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016. Spotify app.

 

A non-fiction podcast episode (found online on a website)

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Title of podcast episode)." Title of Container (Title of Podcast), hosted by Contributor(s), Version, Number (Season and/or Episode, if listed), Publisher (if not the same as the Title of Podcast), Publication date, Location (Permalink / URL).

Example 1:

"Crime Scene." This American Life, hosted by Ira Glass, episode 653, 3 Aug. 2018, https://www.thisamericanlife.org/653/crime-scene.

Example 2 - If the website where the podcast is hosted does not share its title with the website:

In a case where the website hosting the podcast does not share a title with the podcast itself, place a period after the publication date, then list the title of the website in italics as a second container, then the permalink or URL linking to the episode.

"Starter in the Jarter." My Brother, My Brother and Me, episode 560, 17 May 2021. The McElroy Family, https://www.themcelroy.family/2021/5/17/22440411/mbmbam-560-starter-in-the-jarter.

An audio drama podcast episode (found online on a website)

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Title of podcast episode)." Title of Container (Title of Podcast), created by Contributor(s), Version, Number (Season and/or Episode, if listed), Publisher (if not the same as the Title of Podcast), Publication date, Location (Permalink / URL).

Example 1:

"Allen, Resurrection." Mission to Zyxx, created by Jeremy Bent et al., season 2, episode 205, Zyxx Quadrant LLC, 27 June 2018, https://missiontozyxx.space/season-2/205.

Example 2 - If the website where the podcast is hosted does not share its title with the website:

In a case where the website hosting the podcast does not share a title with the podcast itself, place a period after the publication date, then list the title of the website in italics as a second container, then the permalink or URL linking to the episode.

"Hope is a Mistake." Sandra, created by Kevin Moffett and Matthew Derby, episode 1, Gimlet Media, 18 Apr. 2018. Gimlet, https://gimletmedia.com/shows/sandra/76h5jo/1-hope-is-a-mistake.

 

A non-fiction podcast episode (From an app)

Most podcasts can be downloaded and listened to through a number of podcast apps (Apple Podcasts, Stitcher, Spotify, etc. . .). In these cases, a URL for the app will not be available. Instead, just list the title of the app as a secondary container, followed by the label "app."

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Title of podcast episode)." Title of Container 1 (Title of Podcast), hosted by Contributor(s), Version, Number (Season and/or Episode, if listed), Publisher (if not the same as the Title of Podcast), Publication date, LocationTitle of Container 2 (Title of Podcast App), app.

Example:

"Crime Scene." This American Life, hosted by Ira Glass, episode 653, 3 Aug. 2018. Apple Podcasts, app.

 

An audio drama podcast episode (From an app)

Most podcasts can be downloaded and listened to through a number of podcast apps (Apple Podcasts, Stitcher, Spotify, etc. . .). In these cases, a URL for the app will not be available. Instead, just list the title of the app as a secondary container, followed by the label "app."

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Title of podcast episode)." Title of Container 1 (Title of Podcast), created by Contributor(s), Version, Number (Season and/or Episode, if listed), Publisher (if not the same as the Title of Podcast), Publication date, LocationTitle of Container 2 (Title of Podcast App), app.

Example 1:

"Allen, Resurrection." Mission to Zyxx, created by Jeremy Bent et al., season 2, episode 205, Zyxx Quadrant LLC, 27 June 2018. Apple Podcasts, app.

Works Cited: Video games or apps

Use the following formats for citing video games or apps.

Note that, even if a video game or app were purchased and downloaded from an online store, do not include the store as a secondary container in the citation. If a video game or app requires a specific platform to run, include the platform or format as supplemental information at the end of the citation.

 

A video game

This can include video games played through any device (desktops, phones, tablets, consoles, etc.). Because most video games are the product of the work of a large group of people, MLA recommends that you do not list an author or other contributors. In the case of an independent game that has been clearly developed by a single person or a small group of people, the author(s) and/or contributors can be included. Also, in the case of a larger game where your paper is focusing on the work of a single individual (e.g. the script writer), you can include an author as well.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Title of game). Title of Container, Contributor, Version (latest update - if available), Number, Publisher, Publication date (last updated - if no update is available, use date released), Location. Platform or medium of publication. 

Example 1:

Pokemon Go. Version 1.175.0, Niantic Inc., 20 May 2021. iOS 12.0 or later.

Example 2:

Marvel's Spider-man: Miles Morales. Version 1.175.0, Sony Interactive Entertainment, 12 Nov. 2020. PlayStation 5.

 

An app

This format should only be used if you are citing an app as a whole. If you are citing specific content accessed through an app (e.g. a film, television series, eBook, music, or podcasts), cite that content as a source, then include the title of the app as a secondary container, with the label of "app." after the title.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Title of app). Title of Container , Contributor, Version (Version Number, if available), Number, Publisher, Publication date (year released), Location.

Example:

Headspace. Version 3.167.0, Headspace Inc., 8 June 2021. iOS 13.0 or later.

Works Cited: Works of art

Use the following formats for works of art, whether original or reproduced.

 

An original work of art (viewed firsthand)

Format:

Artist. Title of Source (Title of Work). Title of Container, Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location (Museum, City).

Example:

Sargent, John Singer. Study of Mme Gautreau. 1884, Tate Britain, London.

 

An original work of art (viewed firsthand - no formal title)

Note: Sometimes a work or art will not have a formal title. In these cases provide a descriptive title of the work instead. This descriptive title should not be italicized. Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the description, but do not capitalize the rest of the description.

Format:

Artist. Title of Source (Descriptive title of work). Title of Container, Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location (Museum), Location (City).

Example:

Pollock, Jackson. Abstract black silkscreen print on white paper. 1951, Museum of Modern Art, New York City.

 

A work of art (reproduced in a book)

Format:

Artist. Title of Source (Title of Work). Title of Container, Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location (Museum or Art Gallery that holds the original work, City). Title of Container 2 (Title of book), by Author(s) as Contributors (or edited by Contributors), Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location (page or plate/figure/slide number).

Example:

Manet, Édouard. Déjeuner sur l'herbe. 1863, Musée d'Orsay, Paris. The Oxford Companion to Western Art, edited by Hugh Brigstocke, Oxford UP, 2001, Plate 27.

 

A work of art (reproduced electronically on a website or database)

Format:

Artist. Title of Source (Title of Work). Title of Container, Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (year work completed), Location (Museum or Art Gallery that holds the original work, City). Title of Container 2 (Title of website or database), Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location (Permalink / URL).

Example:

Courbet, Gustave. The Wounded Man. c. 1855. Musée d'Orsay, Paris. ARTstor, https://library-artstor-org.ezproxy.marianopolis.edu/#/asset/LESSING_ART_1039789408.

Works Cited: Course materials

A Handout distributed in class by your teacher

This format should only be used for content that was created specifically to be part of a class. Direct photocopies of poems, essays, articles, or short stories from other sources should be cited as coming from that original source.

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Title of Handout)." Title of Container 1 (Course Name: Course Number), taught by Contributor (Name of professor), Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (date distributed in-class).

Example:

"Preparing a List of Works Cited, MLA Style." Research Methodology: 300-302-MS, taught by Angelique Koumouzelis, Marianopolis College, 23 Sept. 2013.

 

A handout with teacher annotations

This format should be used for handouts that contain extensive annotations and commentary by the teacher of a work by another author. While you would normally cite a selection copied from another source as coming from that original source, the annotations from the teacher make the handout different enough from the original to warrant citing the handout as a distinct source.

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Title of Handout)." Annotated by Contributor (Name of professor).  Title of Container 1 (Course Name: Course Number), taught by Contributor (Name of professor), Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (date posted), Location.

Example:

Wollstonecraft, Mary. "Selections from A Vindication of the Rights of Woman." Annotated by Natalie Huffels. Introduction to College English: 603-101-MQ, taught by Natalie Huffels, Marianopolis College, 23 Sept. 2021.

 

Content posted on Omnivox by your teacher

This format should only be used for content that was created specifically to be part of a class. Direct scans of poems, essays, articles, or short stories from other sources should be cited as coming from that original source.

This follows the same format as for citing a handout, but with the addition of a second container for Omnivox. Note: Because it is not possible to directly link to a post in Omnivox, you'll need to link to the more general Marianopolis Omnivox site.

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Title of Handout)." Title of Container 1 (Course Name: Course Number), taught by Contributor (Name of professor), Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (date posted), LocationTitle of Container 2 (Marianopolis Omnivox), Location (URL).

Example:

"Preparing a List of Works Cited, MLA Style." Research Methodology: 300-302-MS, taught by Angelique Koumouzelis, Marianopolis College, 23 Sept. 2013. Marianopolis Omnivox, https://marianopolis.omnivox.ca.

 

A class lecture (with or without a slide presentation)

Note: Slide presentations such as a PowerPoint presentation are considered to be part of the live lecture that was given in class. Therefore, MLA recommends to cite it all together as a lecture. You may include slide numbers in your in-text citations for the lecture, but are not required to do so unless the slides are clearly labelled with slide numbers.

Format:

Lecturer. "Title of Source (Title of Lecture)." Title of Container (Course Name: Course Number), Other Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher , Publication date (date of lecture), Location (Place Lecture Given, City). 

Example:

Flanagan, Matthew. "Advanced Library Research Skills." Integrative Project: 300-301-MS, 28 Aug. 2015, Marianopolis College, Westmount.

 

A recorded class lecture (with or without a slide presentation)

Use for a video or audio recording of a class lecture. Essentially, you are just treating the lecture as any other video or audio clip.

Format:

Lecturer. "Title of Source (Title of Lecture)." Title of Container (Website where the lecture video is hosted), uploaded by Contributor (if the uploader is not the same as the lecturer), Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (date of upload), Location (Permalink / URL). 

Example:

Flanagan, Matthew. "Integrative Project: Advanced Library Research." Microsoft OneDrive, 26 May 2021, https://marianopolis-my.sharepoint.com/:v:/p/flanagan/EbQezgM8Hg1DqyH1P1ci2FUBFLlE1sd9YmToR_t9ClGnA?e=Ux21o2.

 

A work in a course pack

Note: Course packs are treated as anthologies in MLA.  The Title of the Course pack is a description beginning with "Course pack for" followed by the title of the course. The compiler for a course pack will be the teacher of that class. Unless told to do otherwise by your teacher, use the page numbers for the course pack when citing it in your Works Cited.

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Selection in the course pack)." Title of container (Descriptive title of course pack), compiled by Contributor (Teacher), Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location (pages in course pack).

Example:

Lovecraft, Howard Phillips. “The Whisperer in Darkness.” Course pack for 603-102-MQ: Horror, compiled by Vivian Ralickas, Eastman, 2014, pp. 61-94.

Works Cited: Government documents

Notes on authors: Most government documents are "authored" by a government department, agency or committee instead of an individual. For example, a document could be authored by the "House of Commons Standing Committee on Health." In cases where the publishing department, agency or committee is also the author of a document, leave the author out of your citation. When listing the department, agency or committee as the publisher in your citation, always begin with the name of the government or province/country that the government represents, followed by a comma, followed by the official name of the department, agency or committee.

Example:

Canada, Canadian Food Inspection Agency,

Quebec, Ministère des Relations internationales et de la Francophonie,

For Canadian government documents, you may use the English or French name of the department, agency or committee, as appropriate for your work. For Provincial government documents, you may choose whether to use the English or French name or the department, agency or committee if the name is made available in both languages on the document. If the name is only available in either English or French on the document, you must use that version. Do not translate it.

 

A government publication (print)

Format:

Author (If not the same as the publishing body). Title of Source (Title of Document). Title of Container, Contributor, Version (if available), Number (if available), Publisher (issuing government body), Publication date.

Example:

Rapport des résultats officiels du scrutin: Référendum du 30 Octobre 1995. Directeur générale des élections du Québec, 1995.

 

A government publication (electronic)

Format:

Author (If not the same as the publishing body). Title of Source (Title of Document). Title of Container, Contributor, Version (if available), Number (if available), Publisher (Name of Government, Name of department, agency, or committee), Publication date, location (Permalink / URL).

Example:

Creating First Nations, Inuit and Métis Languages Legislation: 2018 Discussion Guide. Canada, Department of Canadian Heritage, 2018, http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2018/pch/CH44-163-2018-eng.pdf.

A law, act, or statute

Note: Laws, acts or statutes enacted by Federal, Provincial, or even Municipal governments will include codes that identify the specific law. Include these as part of the title of your source. Also, DO NOT italicize the title of a law or place it in quotation marks. If the law was found online, include the name of the website as a container, in italics.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Name of law). Title of Container(Name of Website), Other Contributor, Version (if available), Number, Publisher (Government that issued the law), Publication date (the "current to" or "last amended" date, whichever is more recent), Location (stable URL).

Example:

Copyright Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-42). Justice Laws Website, Government of Canada, 16 Sept. 2018, http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-42/FullText.html.

Note that the following websites are considered the official online sources for laws enacted by the corresponding government:

Works Cited: Indigenous Elder or Knowledge Keeper

An Indigenous Elder or Knowledge Keeper

Originally proposed by Lorisia MacLeod, a member of the James Smith Cree Nation, while she was a librarian at NorQuest College in Edmonton, Alberta, The Modern Languages Association has recently published official recommendations for adapting the citation format for citing Indigenous Elders or Knowledge Keepers. As Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers hold significant roles in Indigenous col as carriers of knowledge and history for their respective Nations or Communities, they should not be treated in the same fashion as most personal communications.

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

Note: This formatting only applies if your are having direct communication (interview, email, phone call, etc. . .) with an Indigenous Elder or Knowledge Keeper. If you are using audio or video recordings, or a print transcript, use the appropriate formatting for that source.

Note: For the descriptive title of the teachings being cited, it is recommended that you create the title in consultation with the Elder or Knowledge Keeper. This is to guarantee that the title accurately reflects the know

Format:

Elder/Knowledge Keeper Last name, First name (Nation or Community). Lives in City or Community (if different from the Nation of Community of origin of the knowledge being passed on). Description of teachings, Treaty (if applicable), Name of Elder/Knowledge Keeper who passed on the teaching to the author (if applicable). Date of communication (Day Month Year), Location where teaching was given (if given in person).

Example:

Cardinal, Delores. (Goodfish Lake Cree Nation). Lives in Edmunton. Oral Teaching, Treaty 6. 4 Apr. 2004, Canadian Native Friendship Centre.

Works Cited: Advertisements

A print or digital advertisement

To cite an advertisement, start the Works Cited entry with a description that gives the name of the product, company, or institution that is being advertised (not in quotation marks or italicized). Begin the description with "Advertisement for." The rest of the citation will then follow the format for the medium in which the advertisement appears. This could be a magazine, a flyer, online, or any other medium that might have advertisements. If the advertisement is from an online source, provide a URL to the advertisement, but only if you are certain that the link is stable, as many online advertisements shift with each viewing of a site.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Advertisement for Product, company, or institution advertised). Title of Container (Magazine, Newspaper, Flyer, or Website Title), Contributor, Version, Number (Magazines and Newspapers only), Publisher, Publication date, Location (pages or URL). 

Example:

Advertisement for 2015 Chevy Silverado Midnight Edition.  Esquire. no. 1000, Oct. 2015, pp. 126-127.

 

A filmed commercial

For filmed commercials, MLA recommends that you cite an online version of the commercial if possible, as this will be the most easily-retrievable medium for your readers. As most companies regularly upload their commercials to YouTube, this is usually quite easy for modern commercials. If it is not possible to find an online copy of the commercial, it is still acceptable to cite the commercial from broadcast television. As with print and digital advertisements, if the commercial does not have a formal title, provide a descriptive title with "Advertisement for" at the beginning. Do not italicize or place the descriptive title in quotation marks. Commercials with formal titles should have the title placed in quotation marks.

Format - online copy:

Author. "Title of Source" (Title of commercial given by online source). Title of Container (Website where commercial was uploaded), uploaded by Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (date uploaded), Location (Permalink / URL). 

Example:

"New! Smoked Meat Poutine Petry Approved." YouTube, uploaded by McDonalds' Canada, 13 Oct. 2015, https://youtu.be/G9X70rSM0o4.

 

Format - Broadcast Television:

Author. Title of Source ("Format Title of Commercial" OR Advertisement for Product, company, or institution advertised). Title of Container, Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher (Network), Publication date (date aired), Location

Example:

Advertisement for Star Wars: Episode 7: The Force Awakens. ESPN, 19 Oct. 2015.

Note: in the above example, Star Wars: Episode 7: The Force Awakens is italicized because it is also the title of a film.

Works Cited: Archival materials and museum texts

A document from an archive

Documents found in archives can be tricky to cite. They come in many different formats, and are often unpublished materials (meaning they won't have a publisher to list), such as letters, journals, photographs and notes. They are also often unique items, so it is important to list any numbers or filing codes associated with the item in the "location" section of the citation.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Title of document). Title of Container, Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (date of creation), Location (Archive name), Location (Institutional affiliation), Location (Collection name), Location (Unique identifier).

Note: This format assumes that you are citing a written or typed document from an archive. Replace the name of the author, document title, and date of creation with appropriate information as needed. If, for example, you are citing a photograph instead of a written document, replace the author’s name with the photographer’s name, and use the descriptive title given to the photograph by the archive as the title of the document.

Example:

McLuhan, Marshall. Letter from Marshall McLuhan to Pierre Trudeau. 12 Jun. 1968, Library and Archives Canada, Government of Canada, Marshall McLuhan Fonds, PIAF166058.

 

A museum wall text

Museum wall text (e.g. plaques or other explanatory text) is not usually signed by an author or an identified group of authors. While it could be assumed that the text was "written" by the museum as an entity, the MLA recommends that, unless the group or person is explicitly mentioned as part of the text, the author section should be blank. Therefore, in the example below, the author has been left out. If you cite museum wall text that has an explicitly named author, you may enter it at the beginning of the citation, just like any other citation.

As wall text does not normally have formal titles, create a description for the text, beginning with "Wall text for," followed by the title of the work or the exhibit that the text accompanies. The title of the actual work should be italicized.

A container may also be included if the text is related to a special exhibit at a museum.

Format:

Author. Wall text for Title of Source (Title of related work). Title of Container (Title of Exhibit), Other Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher (Museum name), Location (City). 

Example:

Wall Text for Asago. 1961. Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Montreal.

Works Cited: Live performances and accompanying documentation

A live concert watched in person

Use this format for any live musical performance that you watch in person. Treat recordings of concerts as musical recordings or videos, as appropriate.

Use this format for any performance where the music is the primary focus of the performance. Cite musicals as a play.

If the concert has a single primary performer or musical group (e.g. as with most popular music groups), place them as the "author" of the citation. If it is a concert where a conductor is directing a large musical group (e.g. classical music concerts), both the conductor and the performing group can be placed as Contributors.

If you do not have a formal title for the concert in question, describe the concert as "Concert," followed by a period.

You may include a Container for the concert if it is part of a larger performance, such as a music festival.

Format:

Author (Name of primary performer or group). Title of Source (Title of Concert, Concert Tour, or description of performance). Title of Container (Music Festival or Similar), Conducted by Other Contributor(s), performed by (musical group),  Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (specific date of performance), Location (name of performance venue, city).

Example:

Ryder, Serena. Concert. 3 Nov. 2018, Corona Theatre, Montreal.

 

A play or musical watched in person

Use this format for a play or musical that you watch in person. Treat recordings of plays or musicals as audio recordings or videos, as appropriate.

With a play or musical, the author of the play is listed as the primary author. The director is listed as a contributor. Unless you are specifically discussing an actor's performance, you do not include the primary performers.

Format:

Author. Title of Source (Title play or musical). Title of Container, Directed by Contributor(s), Version, Number, Publisher (Production Company), Publication date (date of specific performance), Location (name of performance venue, city).

Example:

Panych, Morris. The Shoplifters. Directed by Morris Panych, Centaur Theatre Company, 19 Mar. 2019, Centaur Theatre, Montreal.

 

A program for a live performance

Plays, musicals, operas, orchestral performances, and other live performances will sometimes have accompanying programs. To cite information from these programs, use the following format. Note that the author is almost universally left out here, as program authors are not normally listed.

The title of Source will be a descriptive title, beginning with "Program for" follow by the title of the performance in question, in italics, followed by the venue for the performance.

Author(s). Title of Source (Program for Title of Performance at the Name of Theatre, City). Title of Container, Contributor(s), Version, Number, Publisher (Program publisher), Publication date (year program was published/year of performance), Location.

Example:

Program for Hamilton at the Richard Rodgers Theatre, New York City. Playbill, 2015.

 

A specific contribution from a program:

Sometimes, a program will contain a specific contribution written by an individual (e.g. an essay about the play). If using the specific contribution, you should cite it separately, using the program as the container. Cite the first and last pages of the specific contribution only if the program has numbered pages.

Format:

Author. "Title of Source (Title of the Contribution." Title of Container (Program for Title of Performance at the Name of Theatre, City), Other Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher (Program publisher), Publication date (year program was publisher/year of performance), Location (pp. first page-last page of the contribution).

Example:

Simonson, Robert. “Marquee Player.” Program for Arthur Miller’s The Crucible at the Walter Kerr Theatre, New York, Playbill, 2016, pp. 4–6.

Works Cited: Generative artificial intelligence tools

You must first have express permission from your teacher to use a generative AI tool (ChatGPT, Google Bard, etc. . .) in your work at the College. This permission can be given on a course-by-course or even assignment-by-assignment basis. If you are not sure whether you are allowed to use generative AI in an assignment or course, please consult your teacher. Do not assume that, if permission was given by the teacher to use generative AI in one assignment or course, that this permission extends to all work assigned by that teacher in any of their courses.

Whenever you do you generative AI for an assignment, it is your responsibility to use it ethically and within the parameters set by the course. To help you with this, the Office of the Academic Dean has put together to following guide on Artificial Intelligence Tools. Note that this also includes respecting the rules regarding cheating and plagiarism as set out by the Marianopolis IPESA.

This ethical use also includes citing generative AI content and making it clear in your work which content is your own and what is the result of generative AI output. To help with this, the MLA Style Center outlines two methods for acknowledging the use of generative AI:
 

Functional Uses of Generative AI

If you are using Generative AI for functional purposes only (e.g. editing your own prose or translating words), include an explanation of how the tool was used. This can be done as part of the text, or in a footnote in your text. In these cases, do not include an in-text citation to the generative AI used, or an entry in your Works Cited.

 

Formal Citation

Use this method whenever your paraphrase, quote, or otherwise incorporate the output of generative AI into your work. This includes any content created by a generative AI, including text, images, data, or other content.

Format:

Author. "Title of source" (The title of the provided prompt, followed by "prompt"). Title of Container (The Name of the AI Tool), Other Contributor(s), Version (the most specific program version available), Number, Publisher (the company that made the tool), Publication date (specific date the content was generated), Location (general URL, unless a unique URL for the generated text is available).

Example:

"Discuss the themes of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem, Beowulf" prompt. ChatGPT, 12 May version, Open AI, 19 May 2023, chat.openai.com/chat.

Note: MLA does allow the shortening of titles for very long titles, which can sometimes be the case for detailed prompts. In these cases, include enough of the prompt to make the sense of the prompt clear, followed by an ellipsis (. . . ). If there is a period at the end of the original prompt, include it after the ellipsis.

 

Alternate URL Source: Using ShareGPT

Some generative AI tools do not provide you with a publicly sharable link to their output. In these case MLA recommends the option of using browser extension to create a publicly available link. This link is then used in place of a general URL for the tool in the citation.

Example:

"Discuss the themes of the Anglo-Saxon epic poem, Beowulf" prompt. ChatGPT, 12 May version, Open AI, 19 May 2023, https://sharegpt.com/c/4KIZZa5.

Some examples of link sharing browser extensions are:

Works Cited: Interviews and other personal communications

From time to time, you may need to refer in your work to an interview that you conducted, or another form of unpublished communication that you received, such as an email or letter. In these cases, you will need to include these as personal communications in your Works Cited. In a person communication, you always refer to yourself as "the author" as the person who received the communication. As personal communications do not have formal titles, you'll provide a title in the format of "________ to the author" or "_______ with the author."

 

An Interview

Note that this is for an interview that you conducted yourself. If you are referencing a published interview (e.g. from a magazine, website, etc. . . ), cite it as a published article.

Format:

Author. Title of source (Interview with the author). Title of Container, Other Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (day month year interview was conducted), Location (pp. first page-last page of the contribution).

Example:

McAdams, Rachel. Interview with the author. 22 May. 2022.

 

An email, letter, etc. . .

If you need to document a communication you received in your work, you would use the following format.

Format:

Author. Title of source (Email, Letter to the author). Title of Container, Other Contributor, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date (day month year interview was conducted), Location (pp. first page-last page of the contribution).

Example:

Einstein, Albert. Email to the author. 16 Jul. 2004.

Page Index

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